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  1. The Hudson River School of painter

    The Hudson River School of painter Thomas Moran (1837-1926) The Hudson River School was America's first true artistic fraternity. Its name was coined to identify a group of New York City-based landscape painters that emerged about 1850 under the influence of the English émigré Thomas Cole (1801-1848) and flourished until about the time of the Centennial. Because of the inspiration exerted by his work, Cole is usually regarded as the "father" or "founder" of the school, though he himself played no special organizational or fostering role except that he was the teacher of Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900). Thomas Cole 1801-1848 Thomas Cole - Destruction Thomas Cole - Il Penseroso, 1845 Along with Albert Bierstadt (1830-1902), Church was the most successful painter of the school until its decline. After Cole's death in 1848, his older contemporary Asher B. Durand (1796-1886) became the acknowledged leader of the New York landscape painters; in 1845, he rose to the presidency of the National Academy of Design, the reigning art institution of the period, and, in 1855-56, published a series of "Letters on Landscape Painting" which codified the standard of idealized naturalism that marked the school's production. Albert Bierstadt - Storm in the mountains Albert Bierstadt - Sunset over the River Albert Bierstadt - Yosemite Valley Sunset The New York landscape painters were not only stylistically but socially coherent. Most belonged to the National Academy, were members of the same clubs, especially the Century, and, by 1858, many of them even worked at the same address, the Studio Building on West Tenth Street, the first purpose-built artist workspace in the city. Eventually, several of the artists built homes on the Hudson River. Though the earliest references to the term "Hudson River School" in the 1870s were disparagingly aimed, the label has never been supplanted and fairly characterizes the artistic body, its New York headquarters, its landscape subject matter, and often literally its subject. If Cole is rightly designated the founder of the school, then its beginnings appear with his arrival in New York City in 1825. He determined to become a landscape painter after a period of itinerant portrait painting in Ohio and western Pennsylvania, and a stint in Philadelphia during which he admired and imitated the landscapes of early American specialists such as Thomas Doughty. As significantly, in 1824, a tourist hotel was opened in the Catskill Mountains one hundred miles upriver from New York. Once in New York in late 1825, Cole sailed for the Catskills, making sketches there and elsewhere along the banks of the Hudson. He produced a series of paintings that, when spotted in a bookstore window by three influential artists, gained him widespread commissions and almost instant fame. He was welcomed into the larger cultural life of the city, and was befriended especially by William Cullen Bryant, the poet and newspaper editor, who wrote a sonnet to Cole when he departed on a Grand Tour of Europe in 1829. George Inness - Hillside at Etretat George Inness - Monastery at Albano George Inness - October George Inness - Rosy Morning George Inness - Stream in the Mountains From the start, Cole's style was marked by dramatic forms and vigorous technique, reflecting the British aesthetic theory of the Sublime, or fearsome, in nature. In the representation of American landscape, really in its infancy in the early nineteenth century, the application of the Sublime was virtually unprecedented, and moreover accorded with a growing appreciation of the wildness of native scenery that had not been seriously addressed by Cole's predecessors. However, the wilderness theme had earlier gained currency in American literature, especially in the "Leatherstocking" novels of James Fenimore Cooper, which were set in the upstate New York locales that became Cole's earliest subjects, including several pictures illustrating scenes from the novels. Fired by the initial reception to his work, as well as by engravings of historical landscapes by J. M. W. Turner and John Martin, Cole's ambitions swelled during his European tour. After Cole returned to America, he continued to interpret the Italian landscape in the form of monumental allegories comprising several pictures, such as The Course of Empire (1834-36; New-York Historical Society) and, following his second European trip in 1839-40, The Voyage of Life (1840; Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute, Ithaca, N.Y.). Cole continued to produce scenic American subjects, but even in those his aims were aggrandized by the historical and religious preoccupations of his mature career. He died rather suddenly in Catskill, New York, where he had moved in 1836, starting a tradition followed by many Hudson River School artists. The engraver, portrait, and Genre painter Asher Durand was one of the three discoverers of Thomas Cole in 1825 and, in the following decade, was gradually moved to take up landscape painting himself. However, by the time Durand wrote "Letters on Landscape Painting" in the 1850s, he had seen the plein-air work of John Constable, Turner's colleague and rival, in England, and held Constable's naturalism up as the standard for young landscape painters—in the process, gently relegating Cole's histrionic subjects and style to the past. With the example of Durand in both word and practice, outdoor sketching in oils as the foundation of and model for studio landscapes became common, and both plein-airism and the loosening authority of Sublime aesthetics led to a less inflected idiom whose most conspicuous features often were the light influencing terrestrial forms and the air bathing them. This trend coincided with the proliferation of tourist resorts both inland and on the coast during the Civil War period, along with the refinement of the vacation experience—increasingly pursued to relieve the pressures of urban workaday life. Painters who both reflected the new aesthetic standards and accommodated the vacationing class of patrons were John F. Kensett (1816-1872), Martin Johnson Heade (1819-1904), Worthington Whittredge (1820-1910), Sanford Robinson Gifford (1823-1880), Jasper Francis Cropsey (1823-1900) and Jervis McEntee (1828-1891). Somewhat exceptional were Frederic Church and Albert Bierstadt, who in a measure extended the heroic landscape ambitions of Cole after his death. Church enjoyed the privilege and distinction of being Cole's student (1844-46), but supplanted his teacher's literary and historical conceits with scientific and expeditionary ones. Establishing his reputation with outsize depictions of North American scenic wonders such as Niagara Falls, Church was stirred by the travel accounts and scientific tracts of the German naturalist Alexander von Humboldt to journey twice to South America in the 1850s and paint large-scale landscapes of the equatorial Andean regions that encompassed torrid to frigid habitats in a single picture—the Earth in microcosm. The Museum's ten-foot-wide Heart of the Andes (09.95) is the most ambitious and acclaimed of these works. It was promoted as a single-picture attraction—i.e., set in a dark, windowlike frame draped with curtains and starkly illuminated in an otherwise darkened room—that drew thousands of paying spectators in New York, London, and eight other American cities. Later Church exhibited "full-scale" paintings of the Arctic regions and the Holy Land. George Inness (1825-1894) George Inness (1825-1894) George Inness (1825-1894) George Inness (1825-1894) George Inness seated in his studio Smithsonian Institution George Inness (1825-1894) Early Moonrise, Florida Thomas Moran (1837-1926) Thomas Moran - The Golden Hour Thomas Moran, Opus 24 Rome, from the Campagna, Sunset, 1867 List of Hudson River School painters 19th century Art Albert Bierstadt ~ Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Frederic Edwin Church | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! George Inness ~ Tonalist painter | The Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Louis Rémy Mignot | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade ~ Landscapes | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade ~ Still Life | Hudson River School Sanford Robinson Gifford | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! The Hudson River School of painter - Nuovo!! Thomas Cole | The Voyage of Life, 1842 - Nuovo!! Thomas Cole ~ Founder of the Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Thomas Moran | Hudson River School 20th century Art Martin Johnson Heade ~ Still Life | Hudson River School Thomas Moran | Hudson River School 21th century Art Martin Johnson Heade ~ Still Life | Hudson River School American Artist Albert Bierstadt ~ Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Frederic Edwin Church | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! George Inness ~ Tonalist painter | The Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Louis Rémy Mignot | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade ~ Landscapes | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade ~ Still Life | Hudson River School Sanford Robinson Gifford | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Thomas Cole | The Voyage of Life, 1842 - Nuovo!! Thomas Cole ~ Founder of the Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Thomas Moran | Hudson River School Art Movements and Styles The Hudson River School of painter - Nuovo!! Art in Detail Thomas Cole | The Voyage of Life, 1842 - Nuovo!! British Artist Thomas Cole | The Voyage of Life, 1842 - Nuovo!! Thomas Cole ~ Founder of the Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Thomas Moran | Hudson River School German Artist Albert Bierstadt ~ Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Hudson River School Albert Bierstadt ~ Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Frederic Edwin Church | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! George Inness ~ Tonalist painter | The Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Louis Rémy Mignot | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade ~ Landscapes | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade ~ Still Life | Hudson River School Sanford Robinson Gifford | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! The Hudson River School of painter - Nuovo!! Thomas Cole | The Voyage of Life, 1842 - Nuovo!! Thomas Cole ~ Founder of the Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Thomas Moran | Hudson River School Impressionist art movement Frederic Edwin Church | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! George Inness ~ Tonalist painter | The Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Louis Rémy Mignot | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! The Hudson River School of painter - Nuovo!! Museum Masterpieces Frederic Edwin Church | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Realist Artist Martin Johnson Heade | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade ~ Landscapes | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade ~ Still Life | Hudson River School Romantic Art Albert Bierstadt ~ Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Frederic Edwin Church | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! George Inness ~ Tonalist painter | The Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Louis Rémy Mignot | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade ~ Landscapes | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Martin Johnson Heade ~ Still Life | Hudson River School Sanford Robinson Gifford | Hudson River School - Nuovo!! The Hudson River School of painter - Nuovo!! Thomas Cole | The Voyage of Life, 1842 - Nuovo!! Thomas Cole ~ Founder of the Hudson River School - Nuovo!! Thomas Moran | Hudson River School Asher Brown Durand - Mrs. Winfield Scott Asher Brown Durand - The Catskill Valley Asher Brown Durand - The Solitary Oak Asher Brown Durand Self-Portrait, 1857 Asher Brown Durand Tutt'Art@ Asher Brown Durand Tutt'Art@ Victor de Grailly (1804-1889) French-born American painter Victor de Grailly (1804-1889) French-born American painter Thomas Worthington Whittredge (American painter 1820-1910) Thomas Worthington Whittredge (American painter 1820-1910) Thomas Worthington Whittredge (American painter 1820-1910) Paul Weber [German-born American 1823-1916] Paul Weber [German-born American 1823-1916] Paul Weber [German-born American 1823-1916] George Inness - Sunset at Etretat George Inness - The Trout Brook, 1891 George Inness George Inness George Inness George Inness George Inness George Inness George Inness George Inness George Inness – Sundown, 1894 Samuel Colman (1832-1920) Samuel Colman (1832-1920) Samuel Colman (1832-1920) Samuel Colman (1832-1920) Samuel Colman (1832-1920) Samuel Colman (1832-1920) Samuel Colman (1832-1920) Thomas Moran (1837-1926) Thomas Moran (1837-1926) Thomas Moran (1837-1926) Thomas Moran (1837-1926) Thomas Moran - Cliffs of the Upper Colorado River, Wyoming Territory, 1882 Thomas Moran - Fantastic Landscape, America 1895 Thomas Moran - Grand canyon in mist Thomas Moran - Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone Thomas Moran - Sunset at Sea, 1906 Thomas Moran - The Much Resounding Sea, 1884 Thomas Moran - View of Venice La Hudson River School fu un movimento artistico americano sviluppato nella metà del XIX secolo da un gruppo di paesaggisti influenzati dal romanticismo. Il suo nome è dato dal fatto che la prima generazione di questi artisti usava dipingere nella valle del fiume Hudson e nella zona circostante. I pittori della seconda generazione di artisti associati alla scuola ampliarono la loro attività oltre i limiti della valle dell'Hudson per includere altre località. I dipinti della Hudson River School riflettono tre temi dell'America del XIX secolo: scoperta, esplorazione e insediamento. Inoltre questi dipinti rappresentano i paesaggi americani con un'impostazione pastorale, dove l'essere umano e la natura coesistono pacificamente. I paesaggi della Hudson River School sono caratterizzati da un realistico, dettagliato e talvolta idealizzato ritratto della natura, spesso contrapponendo alla pacifica agricoltura le zone disabitate restanti, allontanandosi velocemente dalla valle del fiume Hudson, così come veniva apprezzata per le sue qualità di imponenza e sublimità. In generale gli artisti della Hudson River School pensavano che la natura, nella forma dei paesaggi americani, fosse un'ineffabile manifestazione di Dio, variata dagli artisti in base alla loro convinzione religiosa. Essi si ispirarono a maestri europei come Claude Lorrain, John Constable e J. M. W. Turner, condividendo la loro ammirazione per le bellezze naturali dell'America con gli scrittori loro contemporanei Thoreau ed Emerson. FOR MORE SUCH ARTISTS' AND ARTWORKS FOLLOW SUJITH PUTHRAN
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